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By Richard Cumberland

"A Treatise of the legislation of Nature", initially titled "De Legibus Naturae", first seemed in 1672 as a theoretical reaction to a number matters that got here jointly in the course of the overdue 1660s. It conveyed a conviction that technological know-how may supply a good technique of demonstrating either the contents and the compulsory strength of the legislation of nature. At a time while Hobbes's paintings looked as if it would recommend that the appliance of technological know-how undermined instead of supported the belief of compulsory typical legislation, Cumberland's "De Legibus Naturae" supplied a systematic clarification of the typical necessity of altruism. via his argument for an ethical legal responsibility to typical legislations, Cumberland made a severe intervention within the early debate over the position of ordinary jurisprudence at a second while the normal legislation undertaking used to be generally suspected of heterodoxy and incoherence. this is often the 1st sleek variation of "A Treatise of the legislation of Nature", in accordance with John Maxwell's English translation of 1727. The version contains Maxwell's large notes and appendixes. It additionally presents, for the 1st time in English, manuscript additions via Cumberland and fabric from Barbeyrac's 1744 French variation and John Towers's version of 1750.

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4. Human Wisdom cannot proportion Punishments to Crimes, because that depends upon such a through Knowledge, both of Things and Circumstances, as none but God has; the Pillory, being a far greater Punishment to some, than the Gallows is to others. It is, therefore, incumbent upon the supreme Law-Giver, and Governor of the World, as he would effectually Vindicate the Honour of his Laws, and promote the publick Happiness, to let no Crime pass unpunish’d; but that a super-added Punishment should await Criminals after this Life, of what Kind soever these Punishments may be; whether such as are naturally Connected with evil Habits, and the evil Company of the Wicked, with one another, or by the farther Addition of Punishments positively inflicted, as the Nature of the Case and of Things requires.

Thomas Pocklington. Col. Thomas Pollexsen. The Rev. Mr. Edward Pordage. Mr. John Porter. Mr. Joseph Pote. Mr. John Power. *Benjamin Prat, Esq; Col. John Preston. Daniel Preverau, Esq; Brigadier Nicholas Price. *Cromwell Price, Esq; William Price, Esq; Mr. Thomas Prior. Thomas Proby, Esq; Surgeon-general of Ireland. George Purdon, Esq; The Rev. Mr. Edward Purdon. Mr. William Pyms. The Rev. Mr. Cornelius Pyne. Q. The Rev. Mr. Questburn. R. *The Rt. Hon. the Bp. of Raphoe, for 2 Books. Dorothy Lady Rawdon.

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