By Cicero S. Vaucher
Frequency synthesizers are an important development block of RF verbal exchange items. they are often present in conventional purchaser items, in own verbal exchange platforms, and in optical conversation apparatus. when you consider that frequency synthesizers are utilized in many alternative functions, diversified functionality features might have to be thought of in each one case. the most physique of the textual content describes a conceptual framework for reading the functionality of PLL frequency synthesizers, and offers optimization systems for the several functionality elements. The research of the PLL homes is played with using the open-loop bandwidth and part margin thoughts, to permit the impact of higher-order poles to be taken under consideration from the start of the layout strategy. The theoretical method research is complemented by means of descriptions of leading edge method and construction block architectures, via circuit implementations in bipolar and CMOS applied sciences, and via size effects. Architectures for RF Frequency Synthesizers includes simple details for the newbie in addition to in-depth wisdom for the skilled fashion designer. it really is extensively illustrated with sensible layout examples utilized in commercial products.
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Additional info for Architectures for RF Frequency Synthesizers
So, the addition of another perfect integrator in the loop’s transfer function leads to instability and oscillatory behaviour, unless further measures are taken to increase the loop’s phase margin. In order to do that, very often a resistance is placed in series with the integrator capacitor. This adds a zero to the trans-impedance function of the loop filter Hence, the RC combination causes a phase advance in the PLL open-loop response, potentially solving the stability problem (provided that the open-loop bandwidth is located in the region with the phase advance, as depicted in Figure 3-9).
In this book we will make use of the open-loop bandwidth and phase margin concepts, to enable the influence of higher order poles to be included in the theoretical analysis. 1 Open- and Closed-loop Transfer Functions G(s) and H(s) The loop considered here consists of a VCO of gain [Hz/V], a programmable frequency divider with a divider ratio N, a phase-frequency 5 Note that the order of a PLL indicates the total number of poles in the open- and closedloop transfer functions, whereas the “type” of a PLL indicates the number of perfect integrators in the loop.
Consider the heterodyne receiver system depicted in Figure 2-7, which has two signals at its input. The desired signal is represented by the gray arrow at frequency the undesired adjacent signal at frequency is represented by the black arrow. e. without phase noise sidebands in the LO signal, the signal at the output of the band-pass IF filter consists solely of the down-converted signal originally present at the input frequency Phase noise in the LO, however, results in “direct mixing” and “reciprocal mixing” effects.